I started rereading *Concrete Mathematics* recently. Chapter 1 is about recurrence relations and a specific section deals with Josephus problem. Quoting Wikipedia, the idea amounts to the following:

People (n) are standing in a circle waiting to be executed. Counting begins at a specified point in the circle and proceeds around the circle in a specified direction. After a specified number of people are skipped (m), the next person is executed. The procedure is repeated with the remaining people, starting with the next person, going in the same direction and skipping the same number of people, until only one person remains, and is freed.

The authors decided to eliminate every *second* remaining person until only one survives, while in the original formulation of the “game” *n* = 41 and *m* = 3. This is followed by a very pedagogical approach to build the recurrence that is of interest, namely:

$$ \begin{array}{rcl} J(1) & = & 1\cr J(2n) & = & 2J(n)-1,\quad \text{for}\, n \ge 1\cr J(2n + 1) & = & 2J(n) + 1,\quad \text{for}\, n\ge 1 \end{array} $$

Note that $J(n)$ is not defined in term of $J(n-1)$, but there’s more to see. It can be seen that $J(n)$ is an increasing odd sequence that restarts with $J(n) = 1$ as soon as *n* is a power of 2. This yields the following theorem:

$$\text{If}\, n=2^m+l\,\text{and}\, 0\le l \le 2^m,\, \text{then}\, J(n) = 2l+1.$$

This yields an explicit expression for $J(n)$, by the way: $J(n) = 2(n-2^{\lfloor\log_2(n)\rfloor})+1$. Using Mathematica, indeed we can confirm that $J(40)=17$ (p. 9, 2nd ed.):

```
In[1]:= With[{n = 40}, 2 (n - 2^Floor[Log2[n]]) + 1]
Out[1]= 17
```

There is also a nice discussion of radix 2 representations of *n* and $J(n)$, where it is shown that $J(n)$ is obtained by performing a one-bit cyclic shift left, which happens to be a RotateLeft in Mathematica. There used to be a `Josephus`

function in Mathematica, in the *Combinatorica* package, but it’s now part of the Wolfram language itself. Given the natural recursion involved, it is, however, not difficult to write a proper function in Scheme:

```
(define (josephus n m)
(if (= n 1)
1
(+ (modulo (+ (josephus (- n 1) m) m -1) n) 1)))
(josephus 40 2)
```